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Raymond Castillo
Raymond Castillo

Phase Locked Oscillator Pdf Free __EXCLUSIVE__


A phase-locked loop or phase lock loop (PLL) is a control system that generates an output signal whose phase is related to the phase of an input signal. There are several different types; the simplest is an electronic circuit consisting of a variable frequency oscillator and a phase detector in a feedback loop. The oscillator's frequency and phase are controlled proportionally by an applied voltage, hence the term voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO).The oscillator generates a periodic signal of a specific frequency, and the phase detector compares the phase of that signal with the phase of the input periodic signal, to adjust the oscillator to keep the phases matched.




Phase Locked Oscillator Pdf Free



Keeping the input and output phase in lockstep also implies keeping the input and output frequencies the same. Consequently, in addition to synchronizing signals, a phase-locked loop can track an input frequency, or it can generate a frequency that is a multiple of the input frequency. These properties are used for computer clock synchronization, demodulation, and frequency synthesis.


Phase-locked loops are widely employed in radio, telecommunications, computers and other electronic applications. They can be used to demodulate a signal, recover a signal from a noisy communication channel, generate a stable frequency at multiples of an input frequency (frequency synthesis), or distribute precisely timed clock pulses in digital logic circuits such as microprocessors. Since a single integrated circuit can now provide a complete phase-locked-loop building block, the technique is widely used in modern electronic devices, with output frequencies from a fraction of a hertz up to many gigahertz.


In 1969, Signetics introduced a line of low-cost monolithic integrated circuits like the NE565, that were complete phase-locked loop systems on a chip,[9] and applications for the technique multiplied. A few years later, RCA introduced the "CD4046" CMOS Micropower Phase-Locked Loop, which also became a popular integrated circuit building block.


There are several variations of PLLs. Some terms that are used are "analog phase-locked loop" (APLL), also referred to as a linear phase-locked loop" (LPLL), "digital phase-locked loop" (DPLL), "all digital phase-locked loop" (ADPLL), and "software phase-locked loop" (SPLL).[10]


Some data streams, especially high-speed serial data streams (such as the raw stream of data from the magnetic head of a disk drive), are sent without an accompanying clock. The receiver generates a clock from an approximate frequency reference, and then phase-aligns to the transitions in the data stream with a PLL. This process is referred to as clock recovery. For this scheme to work, the data stream must have a transition frequently enough to correct any drift in the PLL's oscillator. Typically, some sort of line code, such as 8b/10b encoding, is used to put a hard upper bound on the maximum time between transitions.


If a clock is sent in parallel with data, that clock can be used to sample the data. Because the clock must be received and amplified before it can drive the flip-flops which sample the data, there will be a finite, and process-, temperature-, and voltage-dependent delay between the detected clock edge and the received data window. This delay limits the frequency at which data can be sent. One way of eliminating this delay is to include a deskew PLL on the receive side, so that the clock at each data flip-flop is phase-matched to the received clock. In that type of application, a special form of a PLL called a delay-locked loop (DLL) is frequently used.[12]


Typically, the reference clock enters the chip and drives a phase locked loop (PLL), which then drives the system's clock distribution. The clock distribution is usually balanced so that the clock arrives at every endpoint simultaneously. One of those endpoints is the PLL's feedback input. The function of the PLL is to compare the distributed clock to the incoming reference clock, and vary the phase and frequency of its output until the reference and feedback clocks are phase and frequency matched.


Phase noise is another type of jitter observed in PLLs, and is caused by the oscillator itself and by elements used in the oscillator's frequency control circuit. Some technologies are known to perform better than others in this regard. The best digital PLLs are constructed with emitter-coupled logic (ECL) elements, at the expense of high power consumption. To keep phase noise low in PLL circuits, it is best to avoid saturating logic families such as transistor-transistor logic (TTL) or CMOS.[14]


At the input, a phase detector (shown as the Phase frequency detector and Charge pump blocks in the figure) compares two input signals, producing an error signal which is proportional to their phase difference. The error signal is then low-pass filtered and used to drive a VCO which creates an output phase. The output is fed through an optional divider back to the input of the system, producing a negative feedback loop. If the output phase drifts, the error signal will increase, driving the VCO phase in the opposite direction so as to reduce the error. Thus the output phase is locked to the phase of the input.


The oscillator generates a periodic output signal. Assume that initially the oscillator is at nearly the same frequency as the reference signal. If the phase from the oscillator falls behind that of the reference, the phase detector changes the control voltage of the oscillator so that it speeds up. Likewise, if the phase creeps ahead of the reference, the phase detector changes the control voltage to slow down the oscillator. Since initially the oscillator may be far from the reference frequency, practical phase detectors may also respond to frequency differences, so as to increase the lock-in range of allowable inputs. Depending on the application, either the output of the controlled oscillator, or the control signal to the oscillator, provides the useful output of the PLL system.[citation needed]


All phase-locked loops employ an oscillator element with variable frequency capability. This can be an analog VCO either driven by analog circuitry in the case of an APLL or driven digitally through the use of a digital-to-analog converter as is the case for some DPLL designs. Pure digital oscillators such as a numerically controlled oscillator are used in ADPLLs.[citation needed]


The equations governing a phase-locked loop with an analog multiplier as the phase detector and linear filter may be derived as follows. Let the input to the phase detector be f 1 ( θ 1 ( t ) ) \displaystyle f_1(\theta _1(t)) and the output of the VCO is f 2 ( θ 2 ( t ) ) \displaystyle f_2(\theta _2(t)) with phases θ 1 ( t ) \displaystyle \theta _1(t) and θ 2 ( t ) \displaystyle \theta _2(t) . The functions f 1 ( θ ) \displaystyle f_1(\theta ) and f 2 ( θ ) \displaystyle f_2(\theta ) describe waveforms of signals. Then the output of the phase detector φ ( t ) \displaystyle \varphi (t) is given by


Digital phase locked loops can be implemented in hardware, using integrated circuits such as a CMOS 4046. However, with microcontrollers becoming faster, it may make sense to implement a phase locked loop in software for applications that do not require locking onto signals in the MHz range or faster, such as precisely controlling motor speeds. Software implementation has several advantages including easy customization of the feedback loop including changing the multiplication or division ratio between the signal being tracked and the output oscillator. Furthermore, a software implementation is useful to understand and experiment with. As an example of a phase-locked loop implemented using a phase frequency detector is presented in MATLAB, as this type of phase detector is robust and easy to implement.


In this example, an array tracksig is assumed to contain a reference signal to be tracked. The oscillator is implemented by a counter, with the most significant bit of the counter indicating the on/off status of the oscillator. This code simulates the two D-type flip-flops that comprise a phase-frequency comparator. When either the reference or signal has a positive edge, the corresponding flip-flop switches high. Once both reference and signal is high, both flip-flops are reset. Which flip-flop is high determines at that instant whether the reference or signal leads the other. The error signal is the difference between these two flip-flop values. The pole-zero filter is implemented by adding the error signal and its derivative to the filtered error signal. This in turn is integrated to find the oscillator frequency.


In practice, one would likely insert other operations into the feedback of this phase-locked loop. For example, if the phase locked loop were to implement a frequency multiplier, the oscillator signal could be divided in frequency before it is compared to the reference signal.


As an analogy of a PLL, consider a race between two cars. One represents the input frequency, the other the PLL's output voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) frequency. Each lap corresponds to a complete cycle. The number of laps per hour (a speed) corresponds to the frequency. The separation of the cars (a distance) corresponds to the phase difference between the two oscillating signals.


However, if there is an accident, a yellow caution flag is raised. This means neither of the race cars is permitted to overtake and pass the other car. The two race cars represent the input and output frequency of the PLL in a locked state. Each driver will measure the phase difference (a fraction of the distance around the lap) between themselves and the other race car. If the hind driver is too far away, they will increase their speed to close the gap. If they are too close to the other car, the driver will slow down. The result is that both race cars will circle the track in lockstep with a fixed phase difference (or constant distance) between them. Since neither car is allowed to lap the other, the cars make the same number of laps in a given time period. Therefore the frequency of the two signals is the same.


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